The REMA model: The PAME model

Just a quick update on my latest thoughts on REMA. Reflecting more on Daniel Pink’s work (initial thoughts) and a recent blog post on gamasutra, it’s become clear to me that REMA stages might better be represented as e Purpose, Autonomy, Mastery stages, followed by a Sharing or Artistry stage. I’ve already talked a great deal about Rollercoaster and Purpose, and Mastery is an obvious link. But the connection between Autonomy and Experiment games has really been driven home to me lately, particularly looking at how games like Skyrim and Minecraft are enjoyed. “Freedom” and “Creative” are the words at the core of this play, strongly linking them to Autonomy.

I’ve also been thinking about Civ. The importance of Management play was driven home in the BrainHex 2 studies, and Civ clearly fits in that category. And while there is some Mastery appeal, from what I know the primary appeal of Civ is the freedom and autonomy aspects – build an empire that’s your version of history. Most players play only once, and play on low difficulties where they are going to stomp the AI, rather then engaging in the available multiplayer play. In fact, Civ is a great example of the conflict between Autonomy and Mastery, as for years Firaxis has maintained the Mastery side of the game, despite the continued challenges of it, such as the unsatisfying victory conditions. Stealing “losing is fun” from Dwarf Fortress would probably greatly enhance the series for the main audience, but they’d lose the Mastery group that is their most devoted.

So I’ve been confident Management gamers belong in the autonomy/experiment group – they want to do things their way, they want options to chose from, succeed at implementing them, and have extra long sessions of progress (what I think of as “cascading plans”, which is a key Experiment game reward that drives the “1 more turn” feeling and deserves its own post). Note here its not creativity linking Experiment games, it’s Autonomy.

Putting all that together, I’ve decided to focus on Purpose, Mastery, and Autonomy by naming REMA to PAME. Daniel Pink’s work is widely read, backed by applicable and interesting research, and his words are more descriptive and have broader context. I renamed Application to Expression, which I think is also clearer, and now has better alliteration.

What’s your thoughts on this? Curious how people have been using REMA in the year since I posted it and whether these changes are helpful.

The REMA Model: The Mario Conundrum con.


It might be tricky to classify Mario as one REMA genre, but Super Mario Land 3D designers definitely used REMA as the core of their design vision:

But it wasn’t really until Super Mario 3D Land that I think I really became a lot more rigorous about enforcing that in level design, where you have a clear concept in the beginning, and that’s carried through absolutely all the way.

Why do you think that that’s important?

KH: Well, I think it has a lot to do with the acquisition of a skill, which is something that often appears very similar to the way that a narrative can develop. So, if you take a single gameplay element, let’s think about the steps that happen.

First, you have to learn how to use that gameplay mechanic, and then the stage will offer you a slightly more complicated scenario in which you have to use it. And then the next step is something crazy happens that makes you think about it in a way you weren’t expecting. And then you get to demonstrate, finally, what sort of mastery you’ve gained over it.

It’s very similar to a narrative structure that you find in four-panel comics… And this is something that ends up giving the player a kind of narrative structure that they can relate to within a single level about how they’re using a game mechanic.

The reference to manga narrative using similar form is fascinating,  It hints at a deeper connection between Rollercoaster play and Mastery play.

The REMA Model: Collected Links

Here’s a list of all the REMA model articles published so far.  If you’re interested in this design lens, I recommend starting with part 1 and exploring these core posts:

And some related posts if you’re interested in more detail:

Trait Inflections: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

I’ve been reading Daniel Pink’s book Drive, and thinking about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  In particular, Rollercoaster games rely heavily on carrot/stick motivation (extrinsic rewards and punishments), and Experiment and Mastery games more on Autonomy, Purpose, and Mastery (his tools to create intrinsic motivation).

This is really interesting, because it provides a clue as to why these genres have evolved the way they have.  Since Rollercoaster games rely heavily on rewards and punishments, they have to be short (extrinsic rewards don’t motivate for very long), and rely heavily on giving you new and exciting rewards (since you get acclimated to them quickly), which story is perfect for.  Story also gives you very strong Purpose, above the gameplay, which probably helps sustain play over hours despite the limited Autonomy and Mastery.  They are happy to add story even if though it usually hurts gameplay.

Meanwhile, Experiment and Mastery games have deep Autonomy and Mastery, and so need less of these extrinsic rewards to get players to heavily invest.  They don’t have to make hard choices between story and gameplay.  Gameplay alone is enough.

The REMA Model part 8: Uses in Game Design

Now that we’ve covered the basics, here’s some of the things in REMA that have made me a better designer.

A Common Lexicon

REMA gives us a common lexicon to talk about why some games are designed differently and play differently.  That’s a big deal on a dev team – often one designer wants to make an Experiment game and one wants to make a Rollercoaster game, and they just talk past each other.  Understanding REMA, these debates can be resolved.

Set Expectations

It is useful for players and critics too.  Players play different games. When expectations are wrong, confusion ensues.  If developers use REMA language to communicate genres with audiences, rather then the meaningless “Action”, “RPG”, or “Sandbox”, it matches the right audience to the right game, and players can happily embrace each genre’s uniqueness.

Stay Focused

Once you know what genre you’re in, it’s much easier to understand what’s inside and outside your game.  The traits serve as a guideline to what has worked and what hasn’t, and give insight into how the audience thinks. This can be particularly helpful for developers who are new to their genre, and need something to relate to.

Find Inspiration

REMA can also help you find useful game references.  If you’re making a competitive multiplayer game, you already knew to look at Starcraft and Counter-strike and Chess.  But you might not think to explore Minesweeper or 7 Wonders or Demon Souls.

Predict Risks

The traits create powerful trait dynamics, areas where each traits has evolved to be different between the modes.  For example:

  • Choices:  Rollercoaster and Mastery games have few choices, but Experiment games have tons.  And the choices change nature and get more complex as you walk from R to E to M to A.
  • Length: Rollercoaster games are short, Experiment games are long, and Mastery games are extremely short.
  • Replayability: Rollercoaster games are played once, Experiment games 2-3 times, and Mastery and Application games over and over and over.
  • World Size:  Most often, Rollercoaster games are journeys, Experiment games are sandboxes, and Mastery games are arenas.
  • Goals: Rollercoaster games and Mastery games have designer-specified end goals, and Experiment games and Application games have player-specified end goals.

You’ll see these dynamics throughout the traits I identified.  Study why they exist.  They are the most powerful part of the whole REMA model.  Pay special attention to games that successfully manipulate or break them.  Understanding these trait dynamics is key to making a good design.  If you make a Mastery game that’s a journey, you’re in risky country, so try and nail that part of the design early.

Improve the Experience

Most games are going to have parts that are Rollercoaster, parts that are Experiment, and parts that are Mastery.  It adds depth and variety to the game.  Identify these places and guide the player through the transition between them – setting the tone, changing the mood, providing rewards.  Otherwise, you’ll leave players frustrated.

In more procedural games, layer the different parts of REMA play at different time scales (eg 1 minute, 15 minutes, 1 hour).  Make these secondary REMA modes infrequent, easy, and optional. For examples, look at the cutscenes and loot game in Diablo 2, or the battles in the Total War series, or the town/wilderness/boss timing in Pokemon.  The larger arc of Diablo 2 (Normal/Nightmare/Hell) and Pokemon (Journey/”Catch them All”/Arena Fights) both brilliantly encourage R->E->M transitions over hundreds of hours.

REMA also helps predict when you might need more of one particular mode.  For example, many Mastery games lack any safe space to Experiment, which means many players fail to transition to Mastery play.  One of the my favorite features of Starcraft 2, the Challenges, addresses this problem.  The Challenges were short puzzles that teach you a skill that you need to compete in the multiplayer game.  The Challenges gave players a safe space to Experiment with key parts of the game and then Master them, making the Mastery transition significantly easier in Starcraft 2 then Starcraft: Brood War.

Discover Designs

Once upon a time Metroid was an Experiment game.  What would a game look like that went back to those roots?  Or a game that combined Metroid’s Rollercoaster nature with Application play to make a metaphorical game about surviving cancer?  REMA teaches us a lot about how players learn, and by playing with the model and its traits, we can discover new directions that haven’t been fully explored.

Be Innovative

Break the rules.  REMA is a model, not a law.  Roguelikes broke the rules of Mastery games and created a game that was about mastering the average game, not an individual game.  Braid built a new sub-genre of Rollercoaster games by sending a message that could only be heard through play.  REMA predicts that you’ll lose some percentage of frustrated players when you break the model.  But no game is for everyone.  Most of the time when you do something new you frustrate 80% of players, but the other 20% become your biggest fans.  If you didn’t want everyone to begin with, that’s a great deal.


The REMA Model part 7: Application games

We’ve explored Rollercoaster learning, Experiment learning, and Mastery learning.  Finally, the last phase of the REMA learning sequence:  Application.

If REMA is a learning sequence, the first 3 phases are like the trunk of a tree, and Application is the branching out of that experience into player’s lives.  Application is the stage where players take what they’ve gotten from a game and apply it to outside contexts.  Where they use what they’ve learned, and share what they’ve gained. Where the output of the play becomes something to reflect and admire.  In a sense, once mastered, the play becomes performance to be shared.

Sometimes it’s literal performance, such as in social performance (Club Penguin) or comedy improv (Fiasco) or dance (DDR).  Other times it’s performance towards an end result, such as in art (Spore’s creature creator), education games in schools (SimCity, Oregon Trail), health (Superbetter), or stories (Alice and Kev in the Sims 3).  Application plau is play that deliberately use the play process to change people’s lives afterwards.

The design of this play is interesting, because this play is generative.  Designers are manipulating familiar kinds of plays to create surprising outputs.  It can be a masterwork of subtle manipulation of the other phases (Braid, Bioshock).  These games seem to me to be artistic goals of Rollercoaster, Experiment, or Mastery games, and better analyzed in that context.  (Often the Application play in these games was not intended!)  However, Application play designers are also exploring a new form of games altogether (World Without Oil).  These seem to be Application games.

Application games are still rare, and instances of Application play are far more common then games built for that purpose.  I’m not an expert in this area, so there could be a good deal more going on then I’m unaware of.  That said, the relative youth of Application games combined with the breadth of experiences means Application games don’t seem to share  traits as tightly as the other modes.  Only a few seem to have evolved so far:

  1. Shared External Goal.  The player(s) and the designer commit up front to create something, and work together to achieve it.  No jerks allowed.  (See the Narrativist paper RPGs.)
  2. Recognizable Output. Players have to be able to claim what is being created.
  3. Useful Output. Players have to be able to do something with it.
  4. Participant-Created Output. The players have an active role in shaping the output (otherwise, you don’t need the game part).
  5. Vague, Internal Success. Players need to be invested in parsing and promoting the output and declaring it finished.
  6. Tight Communities:  Performance needs an audience, and that combined with a valuable output leads to communities…
  7. Publication:  And “museum-like” repositories for the game’s output, often online.

Application game design is still young, and there’s much to discover.  But focused Application game designers are starting to appear.  The Serious Games and Narrativist Game movements are home to many of them, but others are light-hearted.  The advertising world is starting to take note, particularly in the non-profit sector.  The military is investing.  “Gameification” is a way of creating Application play in non-game contexts.  It remains to be seen whether Application games will evolve new game traits that evoke a new style of game, or whether they will focus on refining Rollercoaster, Experiment, and Mastery techniques for Application purposes.  But the unique pressures of performance create new possibilities.  I’d be curious if you’ve seen or heard of good examples that break the Rollercoaster/Experiment/Mastery game model.

So!  We’re through the REMA stages in detail.  Thanks for reading!  I hope its been enlightening.  We’ve seen how you can identify each play stage, some design traits that you can explore in each stage, and we’ve explored some of REMA’s shortcomings.  I have one more post planned on the relationships between the different traits.  But I’d also like to hear your take. Everyone seems to have a different perspective on it.  Please share!

The REMA Model part 6: The Mario Conundrum

Where does Super Mario Bros. go?

Let me tell you, in the REMA work Mario and similar games have been the biggest challenge so far for me.  Because REMA is based on a learning model and not a game design model, the categories aren’t defined by the games themselves.  It’s an interesting outcome that games seemed to have evolved to match these categories (likely a side effect of players being focused on only one mode at a time).  And it’s useful that these games have evolved unique traits that can help focus the design.

But Mario doesn’t fit.  Mario might be dismissable, because it was released well before most of the REMA traits had evolved.  But it’s an all-time favorite.  And there are plenty of other recent games that don’t fit well either.  Like Super Meat Boy.  And what about the Ninja Gaidens?  or Demon Souls?  The main design difference here from Rollercoaster games is just the difficulty.  But that difficulty forces the player to use Mastery-type play to proceed.  And player’s love it.

For any game, REMA classification is based on what is the primary focus of the player.  And the focus of the player’s play in these games 90% of the time is on perfecting a skill – Mastery play.  For the REMA model to be coherent, these are Mastery games.

But these games don’t share the traits I described for Mastery games.  They don’t have one room, they are a journey.  The structure is content driven and external.  They’ll often introduce new tools along the way that force you to restart the REMA learning process.  What gives?

I think there must be 2 kinds of Mastery games, each with a different lineage.  Mario is the kind of single-player Mastery game where designers create a series of difficult tests for players to beat.  By amping the difficulty, video game designers discovered they could create a different kind of Mastery experience from the historical, competitive Mastery game.  These games have very different traits from the historical games, from different evolutionary pressures:

  1. One Time Through Yes, you might play the levels over and over, and you might come back to 100% something, but these are linear games.
  2. Long:  And, like Rollercoaster games, to justify their value, they have lots of puzzles/levels.
  3. High Challenge:  Challenge promotes quick mastery.  These are often difficult cognitive (puzzles) or physical challenges.
  4. Punishment:  As does punishment.  These 2 are the key traits that separate these games from Rollercoaster games.
  5. Little Randomness:  A trait Mastery and Rollercoaster games share.
  6. Scripted:  The “beat it once” mentality encourages one-time construction techniques.
  7. Skill Driven: Progress is defined by tests of whether a player has mastered a particular skill or concept.  Unlike other Mastery games, the same test isn’t repeated twice.
  8. Direction:  These games are not one room games.  They are a journey, the player beating one test at a time.
  9. Content Driven:  The tests are a form of content.  Development is usually centered on content creation.
  10. Content Defined Stopping Point:  And when you run out of tests, you’re usually done.
  11. Varied, External Success:  The designer crafts the tests and the player overcomes them.
  12. Narrative:  Story serves as an excellent reward and frame outside the tests.
  13. Contextual:  The scenes and narrative often assist in the tests and slightly modify the systems, in order to vary and explore the scripted system space.

You’ll notice that nearly all of these traits are Rollercoaster traits too, except for the ones about difficulty.  And Rollercoaster designers have realized this too – most Rollercoaster games have an “Insane” difficulty mode that creates Mastery play.  Halo on Legendary is a completely different game then Halo on Normal.  The player’s goals and play are different.

This complicates things.  This makes 2 distinct groups of Mastery games, one of which is fairly close to Rollercoaster games.  And it opens up the possibility that there could be similar evolutionary splits in the other play modes.  We’ll see how it develops.  Do you think this is the right way to take the model?  Are there other groups I’m also missing?

In the meantime, I could use names for these 2 groups of games.  Ideas?

The REMA Model part 5 con: Mastered

One interesting type of play within Mastery play and Mastery games is that players aren’t always trying to improve themselves.  Sometimes players like to enjoy the mastery they already have, or enjoy the game’s explicit reward structure.  Doing their gathering rounds in WoW.  Beating new players in Dota.  Doing another round of Solitaire just for the enjoyment of it.  Players often just enjoy displaying expertise in Mastery games, only discovering something new and getting slightly better in a way that feels coincidental.

I think of this “Mastered” play as part of the core of Mastery play.  Often, our intrinsic enjoyment of something we’ve mastered is a big part of why we keep doing it.  Mastered play shares the design traits that Mastery play has, but it’s definitely a subgenre of Mastery play that has value (enjoyment) and pitfalls (grinding) of its own.

The core thing that separates broad Mastery and Mastered play is a player’s indulgence in rewards in Mastered play.  The REMA Model is learning focused, and doesn’t closely consider rewards and motivations from rewards.  REMA is just one perspective, and rewards design is another.  Rewards drive engagement and provide feedback in a way that is very useful for games.  REMA, for example, definitely exists on the different reward time slices we typically use (1 second, 5 seconds, 1 minute, …1 hour, 1 day, etc).  But REMA on the 1 second scale is not very enlightening: nearly all 1 second play is Mastery.  Reward design, however, is crucial on the 1 second level.

The REMA Model: Jean Piaget

A psychologist suggested to me that the REMA model is similar to Jean Piaget’s Sensorimotor/Adaptive model of Intellectual Development, specifically the Assimilation (Experiment) and Accomodation (Mastery) stages.  He said a first step, Observation (or Rollercoaster behavior) would fit the model as well.

REMA is built from playtest observation and discussion, similar to Piaget’s work, with a goal of starting from the player’s psychological point of view rather then a game design view, so this comparison is interesting.  Any other psychologists who could add to the discussion?

The REMA Model part 5: Mastery games

The REMA series continues. Recall, the hope is that by understanding the different modes and how they relate, we can improve the fractured conversation around games, and thus better understand and improve our games. Today, Mastery games. The oldest, most challenging, and most competitive games. And the games that have built the most dedicated fan bases ever seen.

Mastery mode is the third and often final stage of the gamer’s learning process. In Mastery mode players ask themselves “How can I do better?” Mastery players are trying to play the best, and they will play over and over again to do so. They are the optimizers, the min-maxers, the competitors, the soon-to-be-experts at their game. Mastery mode is what we historically played games for, and it is the REMA phase most unique to games from other mediums.

Mastery games maximize the Mastery mode of play. They try and get players quickly to the third stage and keep them there with deep, unsolvable systems. They are about expressing skill. These are games about competition, player vs. player, and playing to win. They are the “Try again” games. These games are more then just interesting choices. They are about interesting predictions as well, about beating the average. While difficult to make and sustain, they have the most dedicated players. The Mastery designer’s primary role is to provide systems that can’t easily be solved, and where success and failure can be measured relative to some external standard.

Chess. Poker. Soccer. Mine-sweeper. Street Fighter 2. Magic: The Gathering. Counter-Strike. Starcraft. Games that have carved swathes across human culture for generations. Nearly all board and card games are Mastery games. While competitive play is common, Mastery games can be single player too, such as Solitaire. The key is Mastery games present success as a repeated quest for victory. Mastery player’s repeated attempts at perfect play fits the world of sports and races. In fact, they are so similar that I often just think of sports as Mastery games. It is no accident that eSports have arisen out of Mastery games, and only Mastery games.

A reminder here. The players choose how they are going to play your game. While X-Com might be an Experiment game, the 10th time through a player is very likely to be a Mastery player. The designer only has the power to guide players through the modes. And, because of the traits of each mode, designs can usually target only 1 mode at any given point of play time*. So when we talk about Mastery games, we are talking about games that were designed to be mastered by the majority of its players.

Mastery games are hard-core, by definition. You aren’t just playing any more, you’re striving. You’re practicing. You’re competing. You’re earning victory. Our verbs change from Experiment verbs (like “play” and “imagine”) to sports verbs. We all engage in Mastery play at some point in our lives, but it’s not often we commit to it seriously. But when we do, that game becomes special. And when other people start to push the boundaries of perfection, we love to stop and watch.

Mastery play has evolved Mastery games over centuries to share common traits:

  1. Deep. Can’t be easy to master. The best mastery games are not just deep, but unsolvable.
  2. Highly Replayable. The best path to mastery is to practice over and over and over.
  3. Very Short. Short games make it easier to learn from your mistakes, analyze, and try again.
  4. Balanced. The game can’t have optimum choices that preclude all other choices, or it won’t be worth mastering.
  5. Low Number of Choices. Plus, lots of choices can make the game harder to learn and perfect. Thus, “elegance” is highly prized, designing the minimum number of choices necessary to make the game meaningful.
  6. Punishing Consequences. The results of player’s choices must be significant to distinguish experts from non-experts. Mistakes are often punished.
  7. Little Randomness. Randomness used carelessly can hide skill, so it is only used in strict, analyzable chunks.
  8. Skill Driven. Expertise is about demonstrating skill, so Mastery games are full of difficult skill choices.
  9. Difficult to Execute Skills. Additionally, skill can be demonstrated in execution, so choices often require difficult to execute skills (such as physical dexterity).
  10. Analog Choices. Another way to make choices difficult-to-master is to make them analog (as in choices with infinite possible responses, like timing, moving, or aiming through space).
  11. Clear Game State. To optimize your play, it helps to understand all the details of play. Lots of exposed numbers, and clear “Do X and Win” are the designer’s marching orders. No mystery or surprises.
  12. System Driven. Choices means systems first, not content first. That makes Mastery development teams similar to Experiment teams, except they are focused on very tight, sharp systems.
  13. Specific, External Success. What it takes to win a Mastery game is often very clearly defined, either by the designer or (interestingly) the community. For example specific end states (like Capture The Flag), leaderboards, or other players failing a task.
  14. No Cheating. Unlike Experiment games, breaking the rules is strictly forbidden. Winners need to be unambiguous. Referees are common, and cheaters are banned. (One of the big knocks against figure skating as a sport is that the scoring is perceived to be corruptible.)
  15. One Small Place. Mastery games take place in small arenas, if they have a space at all. Tighter spaces limit choices, force difficulty decisions, and push players towards thinking about mastery.
  16. What Narrative? Narrative is seen as distracting, for someone else. Any themes of the game are either an oft-ignored content veneer or deeply buried in the game’s systems.
  17. Regular Design Updates. One common way to make a game both unsolvable and balanced is to constantly change small pieces of the rules.
  18. Tight Communities. The deep analysis, the commitment to master, and the (common) multi-player requirement tends to create very tight, dedicated communities.
  19. Meta-game. The discussion and analyze of the group creates a meta-game around the game itself. Updating tends to feed this meta-game as well.
  20. Audience. Tight communities and meta-gaming often leads to groups more interested in watching experts then playing themselves.

Of these traits, Highly Replayable, Very Short, Balanced, High Consequences, Analog Choices, Difficult to Master Skills, Clear Game State, No Cheating, One Small Place, What Narrative?, Regular Design Updates, Tight Communities, Meta-game, and Audience are unique to Mastery games. Mastery games are rather unique! Most of the other traits are shared with Rollercoaster games, which has helped the long-running blockbuster trend of combining a single-player Rollercoaster game with a multiplayer Mastery game.

Like Experiment designers, Mastery designers are often systems designers. But they are in search of elegance rather then emergence. They know how to create deep, unsolvable systems. To get players to “Try Again” over and over. Many are PvP game designers or interested in the behavior of communities. Mastery designers often seek to affect primitive emotions – aggression, dominance, fear, adrenaline, victory, flow. The best can carve those impulses into meaning, teaching deep truths about how humans tick and skills that improve player’s lives.

Historically, Mastery games pre-date computers, and made the transition rather roughly. Traditional video game critics often don’t even have the time or a competitive environment to effectively review a Mastery game in, and their scores have correspondingly suffered. And while intensely popular with their committed fans, Mastery games tend to have the smallest initial audience, and thus made the least amount of money in the storefront business model. These have been changing, however, and mastery games are making a big (and largely unnoticed) comeback.

Their sub-genres need further study. Obvious starting points are PvP games, solo-games, and cooperative games, but the mechanical distinctions seem deeper then that. If you have any thoughts, post them in the comments!

Next time, our final and strangest mode – Application!

* It’s not a hard rule that games can only have one REMA mode. It’s not like designers should stop making games that don’t easily fit into these categories. The evidence is that it’s just particularly hard.

Edit: added skill-driven trait.